Solutions Gateway General Resources

Here you can find general resources relevant to the implementation of the Solutions provided on the Solutions Gateway. To browse selected resources that are relevant to the development and implementation of a specific Solution or Solutions Package, visit the corresponding Solution or Solutions Package webpage and open the section Resources.

The general resources in this webpage can support your city in setting a comprehensive institutional framework for low-emission urban development and for the implementation of Solutions. It includes materials and examples for the formulation of vertically integrated climate policies across multiple levels of governance, in particular of vertical Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (V-NAMAs). This webpage also includes information on the Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories (GPC), which helps to determine the emissions baseline and impact of solutions at community scale.

You can find additional resources on low-emission urban development here.


Solutions Gateway Sourcebook

The Solutions Gateway provides guidance and examples of proven solutions for urban low emission and sustainable development. This sourcebook provides a snapshot overview of the guidance available online.

Solutions Gateway and Pool of Experts Webinar

Webinar held on 22nd of March, 2016, at the ICLEI World Secretariat.
Facilitator: Ana Marques, Senior Officer, Low Carbon Cities
carbonn® Center - Bonn Center for Local Climate Action and Reporting, ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability Speakers:
Agathe Cavicchioli, Junior Officer, Low Carbon Cities, ICLEI
Chang Deng-Beck, Project Officer, Low Carbon Cities, ICLEI
Guest Speakers:
Session 1: Lighea Speziale, Scientific and Technical Officer, Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants
Session 2: Gabriela Otero, Coordinator, Technical Department, ABRELPE


  1. 1. Vertically Integrated National Appropriate Mitigation Actions (V-NAMAs)
  2. 2. Global Protocol for Community-Scale GHG Emission Inventories (GPC)


1. Vertically Integrated National Appropriate Mitigation Actions (V-NAMAs)


Vertically Integrated Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions - Full Guidance Document

Cities and sub-national governments have key competences and influence in sectors with high greenhouse gas emissions such as transport, buildings, waste management, energy generation and energy use. In many cases, however, the planning, implementation and reporting of climate mitigation measures are not effectively integrated between national and sub-national levels. Based on initial experiences with vertically integrated Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (V-NAMAs), this folder presents policy recommendations, case studies, and tools aimed at strengthening the involvement of sub-national governments in mitigation actions.

Policy and Implementation Recommendations

Sub-national governments have an increasingly important role to play in actions which contribute to the implementation of national government climate change strategies and commitments. Integrating efforts across multiple levels of government effectively (“vertical integration“) can be challenging depending on the context but the rewards in terms of improved efficiency and impact can be great. Drawing on recent research and practitioner insights, a range of recommendations are presented here to enhance the design and implementation of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) through improving vertical integration.

Transit Oriented Development NAMA in Colombia

Already a leader in implementing Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems, Colombia is now taking a more holistic approach to tackling traffic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the long-term. Through coordination of transport systems and land-use planning, integration with housing policy and inter-institutional cooperation which includes sub-national governments and the private sector, Colombia’s Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA), now under implementation, is using climate funds to catalyze transformational urban development.

Waste Management V-NAMA in Indonesia

Waste management is a sector where local governments have key competencies and is one of five priority areas identified in Indonesia's National Action Plan for reducing greenhouse gas Emissions (RAN-GRK). Since 2012, GIZ has been supporting partners in Indonesia to develop "Vertically Integrated National Appropriate Mitigation Actions" (V-NAMA) focussing on municipal solid waste management (MSWM).

Vertical Integration of Climate Policy in Japan

Japan undertakes a wide variety of efforts to improve vertical integration of climate change mitigation policy across different levels of government. The country’s national law mandates that large cities develop and implement climate action plans and a nationwide programme selects and promotes advanced locally-led initiatives, such as those taken by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government.

Low Emissions Schools NAMA in Mexico

The Low Emissions Schools Programme is a NAMA focused on the educational sector in Mexico. It connects education and climate change through promoting sustainable development practices in schools and the wider community, including the measurement of school-level greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This case provides an example of how local climate action can successfully be piloted and scaled-up to a National Appropriate Mitigation Action(NAMA).

Building Energy Efficiency V-NAMA in South Africa

Energy efficiency in buildings is an area where local governments can have a key influence and is one of the eight priority areas identified in South Africa's national Climate Change Response Strategy. Since 2012, the GIZ has supported partners in the South African government to develop "Vertically Integrated National Appropriate Mitigation Actions" (V-NAMA) focussing on energy efficiency in public buildings.

Municipal Level Carbon Emissions Assessment in Tunisia

As Tunisia’s second largest municipality and widely known as a hot-spot for environmental pollution, the city of Sfax decided to undertake the countries first GHG emissions assessment at city level. This assessment, applying the Bilan Carbone® tool, now forms the basis for a municipal transport Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA). The case provides an example of bottom-up climate action led by a municipality and demonstrates the important role which cities can play as pioneers and “pushers” for climate action and innovation at national level.


2. Global Protocol for Community-Scale GHG Emission Inventories (GPC)


GPC - Executive Summary

Cities are the global centers of communication, commerce and culture. They are also a significant, and growing, source of energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A city’s ability to take effective action on mitigating climate change, and monitor progress, depends on having access to good quality data on GHG emissions. Planning for climate action begins with developing a GHG inventory. An inventory enables cities to understand the emissions contribution of different activities in the community.

GPC - Full Document

The Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories (GPC) offers cities and local governments a robust, transparent and globally-accepted framework to consistently identify, calculate and report on city greenhouse gases. This includes emissions released within city boundaries as well as those occurring outside them as a result of activities taking place within the city. The GPC establishes credible emissions accounting and reporting practices.

GPC - Infographic

The Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories (GPC), the world’s most widely-endorsed GHG accounting and reporting standard for cities, enables local leaders to build more effective climate strategies and track the performance of actions already underway. This infographic summarizes the benefits of the GPC in a clear and concise manner.

GPC - Launch - COP20 Lima (Video)

The GPC launch was hosted by the City of Lima at Lima’s historic City Hall. Experts from the WRI, C40, ICLEI, the World Bank, and UN-Habitat were in attendance. It was the largest gathering of cities following the Climate Summit in New York with mayors and representatives from many cities present. The introduction of GPC in Lima highlights the Compact of Mayors, which requires that cities set climate targets and report on progress using a standard GHG measurement system – the newly launched GPC.